Respirocyte, Future of medicine

A respirocyte may be a theoretical nanomachine capable of behaving sort of a red blood cell in humans. It may augment or replace entirely our red blood cells as a carrier of chemical elements and carbonic acid gas within the blood.

The respirocyte was initially projected within the late Nineties by futurist Henry M. Robert Freitas’s son. He revealed a paper description of the need for a respirocyte. That became the quality point of reference for all discussions concerning the technology and several other forms of medical nanorobots.

Proposed style options of Respirocyte

The first concern within the style of a respirocyte is that the overall size. The device should be sufficiently little to pass unhampered through the blood. Freitas’ style is considerably smaller than a traditional red blood cell (1 µm in diameter, as opposition 6-8 µm), permitting the respirocytes to pass into the tiniest capillaries. Wherever red blood cells will ordinarily grind to a halt and solely move slowly. This could afford way more economical to deliver chemical elements to tissue than is feasible with natural red cells alone.

Proposed Structure of Respirocyte by Freitas / Image from Wikipedia

Shell Construction of Respirocyte

The outer shell of the respirocyte would be created out of a diamondoid material. This includes any crystal that includes a structure like a diamond, like sapphire. The shell would presumably need to be made up of individual atoms or tiny units to make sure of perfect construction. The strength of a shell like this could permit the respirocyte to contain gases at unbelievably high pressures. The device may hold 236 times additional chemical elements and carbonic acid gas than a red blood cell with this capability.


An operating respirocyte would want the subsequent components

Molecular rotors, engineered from around one hundred atoms. These will pump gases in and out of the controlled storage chambers and collect aldohexose for energy. These would be functionalized with selective binding sites, proscribing them from pumping virtually one kind of molecule.

So a power generator of some kind, presumably similar to operational to a cell. Which might use aldohexose collected by a selective pump rotor to come up with enough energy to power the device.

Water ballast chambers, regulate buoyancy

Various forms of sensors, work out the concentrations of chemical elements and carbonic acid gas within the neighborhood and monitor the pressure among the gas storage tanks.

A tiny laptop is needed to interpret input from the sensors, and use the info to manipulate gas flow rates and power distribution. The pc would want solely modest process power, by the quality of traditional sized computers. However, the computing core and also the information storage would need to work within a unit 124 nm across.

Pressure transducers on the surface of the structure are projected as a receiver for programming directions, sent by the Doctor via associate encoded series of compression pulses.

Medical Applications of Respirocyte

If and once our technology is advanced enough to make cheap respirocytes, the medical opportunities can be limitless.

The most necessary applications are going to be to form associate economical, universal. Lasting artificial blood-replacement fluid to be used in transfusions, and for attention eventualities. If someone is drowning, choking, or laid low with any type of physiological condition, a speedy injection of respirocytes can sustain them for long enough to achieve medical facilitate. This can even be of nice use in attack cases, wherever keeping the patient alive for even some minutes longer will mean survival.

Sporting or Recreational sweetening

Naturally, there’ll even be some interest in victimization the technology to usually enhance the capabilities of healthy folks.

So using respirocytes to reinforce traditional blood may permit different to remain underwater for long periods of your time while not respiration. Climbers to achieve high altitudes while not the necessity for chemical element tanks, and let athletes sustain a sprint for minutes instead of seconds.

However Athletic competitions just like the Olympiad would need to run strict tests for respirocytes. In addition to performance-improving medication, otherwise, the athletes with no enhancements would be at a big disadvantage!


The technology needed to make a respirocyte continues to be a great deal within the theoretical stage. While looks possible that Freitas’ style can become sensible for some purpose. It’ll be a few years before they’re seen within the world of medication. Even after we will build the devices, a good deal of safety testing is going to be needed. This is to form certain that immune responses and toxicity square measure properly managed. So there can also be problems with the long-run stress placed on the opposite systems within the body once the vascular system is given these virtually super-human powers.

A nearer-term goal, however, could also be to make a paradigm. However, The method would be prohibitively expensive with our current technology. Several other key parts square measure missing (nano computation, power supply, etc.). However, at this rate that engineering science is developing. It’ll not be long before we can think about constructing structures of this quality on such a little scale.

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